Cognitive psychologists have identified several learning science strategies that greatly assist students to move learning from working memory (what we see demonstrated during lessons) to long-term memory (what they can actually remember and do afterwards). I am compiling a list of links that explain these processes for teachers and students who are at the stage of self-study.

The Learning Scientists describe six effective learning strategies which are

  • spaced practice
  • retrieval practice
  • elaboration
  • interleaving
  • concrete examples and
  • dual coding

Please find below links to simple explanations of these strategies and hints and tips to apply them to classroom teaching and learning, or self-study.

Six Effective Strategies

Student Slideshows

Free Downloadable Resources

Spaced Practice – spread practice over time

Spaced practice for skills learning

Retrieval Practice – practice retrieving learning not just storing

Guides and Resources

Graphic Organisers to Assist Retrieval

Activities for Primary Students

Elaboration – explain and describe learning


Interleaving – mix up practice examples within a topic eg area formulas


Concrete Examples – to understand abstract ideas


Dual Coding – combine words and visuals


A Process to Support Classroom Learning